1. Future of heat decarbonisation:
- Decentralisation of heat sources – not one heat plant (or combined heat and power plant) for city or town, but few smaller sources. It is possible to use renewable energy sources for some housing estate of several buildings. It is possible to use additional heat from local source for existing heat systems; Micro – CHP; renewable heating;
- Centralization – centralised, low-carbon heat generation, Macro – CHP .
- Digitization – automatization of processes, also hybrid systems; maintenance-free process control, impact consumers for product e.g. temperature via apps etc.
- Electrification with some combination of direct electric heating, storage heaters and heat pumps
- Hydrogen (H2) – repurposing the gas grids with low carbon gas, e.g. hydrogen; installing hydrogen boilers in households;
- Hybrid – combined the sources of media e.g. use of gas and electric heating systems via a hybrid heat pump (HHP), which includes both a heat pump and a gas boiler and other variations of sources.
2. Impact for future of heat decarbonisation have:
- Law regulations (energy efficiency, U-value, government programs etc.)
- Benefits for owners of buildings, landlords, companies from government and other institutions, grants;
- Age of buildings (old buildings = low U value, old technology, building materials, insulation)
- Type and use of buildings (small, high – rise building, use of the building – residential, office, manufacturing etc.)
- Access to media (gas, electricity, biomass, geothermal source, area for solar panels, pv panels, wind turbine, biogas, area for fuel storage etc.)
- Localisation (city, town, cottage, neighbours – how far they are living, how many neighbours, distance to CHP plant, possibilities to build local heat room, boiler rooms etc.)
- Technology feasibility / access (low carbon heating technologies, price, warranty, lifetime of technology etc.)